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tv   FBI Director James Comey Testimony on Fiscal Year 2017 Budget  CSPAN  February 29, 2016 8:30am-10:11am EST

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very people and being marketed based on the false promise of security. because their information is already vulnerable. but what is really a tool that frustrates and inconsistent with our constitutional system of search and seizure. >> host: josh is special counsel for the fbi agents association. chris calabrese is vice president of technology and democracy. spent several years at aclu. dustin volz. thank you. gentlemen. >> guest: thank you. >> fbi director james comey talked about the bureau's attempt to have apple help in the san bernanadino investigation at a house appropriations subcommittee hearing. director comey was there to
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testify on the bureau's 2017 budget request. this is an hour 1/2. the >> commerce science appropriations subcommittee will come to order. the subcommittee welcomes today director james comey back to present the mt. 's fiscal year 2017 proposal for the federal bureau of investigation. fbi director is at forefront of the news today. whether the topic is terrorism, cyber threats, foreign espionage or international organized crime, the fbi is responsible for leading america's domestic
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anti-terrorism, counterintelligence and national security efforts along with your mission, director to combat gangs, financial fraud, human trafficking and public corruption. prior to 9/11 the fbi focused on investigating crimes. however today, of course, the fbi is charged with anticipating and preventing attacks from terrorists and other malefactors along with investigating federal crimes. we on the commerce justice science appropriations committee, director will always provide you and your men and women who service and protect us with the support you need to meet the increasing demands that are placed on your fine people and resources. but as you know the committee faces unrelenting pressure to trim budgets in an environment of where essentially we have, we're facing flat budgets from year to year and increasing pressure on mandatory social
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safety net programs that have simply got to be brought under control if we ever are going to balance the federal budget. committee will do everything we can to help you in that difficult environment. today, we will probe your request, seeking assurances that our investments in the fbi will significantly improve your capabilities. we'll strengthen national security and measureably reduce crime. we have the highest esteem for the fib by, mr. director, but the committee will not be giving any free passes for funding increases. we must be convinced our constituents hard-earned tax dollars will be used frugally and carefully to advance our highest national priorities. before we proceed i would like to recognize mr. honda, our ranking member from california, for any comments he may have. >> thank you, mr. chairman. welcome, secretary. i appreciate our continued work together as we enter into the third cgf hearing today.
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i look forward to pursuing our mutual interests with all of our respective colleagues on this subcommittee, crafting a strong bipartisan cgs appropriations bill. thank you, for coming, director comey. pleasure to join us here this afternoon to hear your testimony and take our questions. first and for most i have a great respect for your prior statements that partisan politics should play no role in your department. i would like to also personally thank you and the dedicated men and women at the federal bureau of investigation who work tireless i to protect the american people against threats primarily here at home and the united states but also here abroad. i think we all agree that the work of the fbi is vitally important to the security of our nation. but i also strongly believe that safeguarding the civil liberty abouts of all americans is equally as important if not more so. the constitution has never
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tested during times of tranquilty. it is during times of tension, turmoil, tragedy, trauma, terrorism, that it is tested. we must make sure that it survives these tests. with that being said i'm eager to learn the progress the fbi is making combating sexual assault and human trafficking and keeping guns out of the wrong hands among other activities. thank you, mr. chair and director comey, i look forward to hear your testimony. >> recognize chairman of the full committee, the gentleman from kentucky, mr. rogers. >> thank you. mr. director, welcome to the congress. thank you for the work you're doing. thank you for your dedication to public service. every day the fbi is on the razor's edge in protecting our homeland from extremism,
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guarding against global cyber threats and espionage and putting dangerous criminals behind bars. the world is changing quickly as new threats emerge. ones that we didn't even dream of five years ago. the tragic attack in san bernardino showed that those who wish to do us harm are adopting more sophisticated recruitment tools than ever before. we routinely witness the fbi rising to the challenge and i have no doubt that they will continue to do so in the future. your work is essential to our national security and our economy. so this committee thanks you, mr. director. and your 35,000 coworkers for your dedicated service. as with virtually every year in recent memory, we are forced here to make difficult decisions. to stay within the confines of our budget parameters.
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your request of 8.4 billion is essentially flat but many of the offsets will effectively reduce the operational capabilities of the fbi. at few problematic reductions include almost 74 million in additional fund we gave to you in fiscal '16. 57 million for personnel. 57 million for operational recision and 150 million in fees for i.t. and criminal database improvements. while we should always be judicious how we allocate scarce resources, we need to hear from you about why you feel these accounts are the best places to scale back. it is also as important as ever for the fbi to make the most of its local, state and even international partnerships to insure that every penny is spent efficiently and effectively as can be.
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these partners thrive with the support and leadership of the fbi provides. one of my highest interests, sure it is yours as well, is the effort to combat drug trafficking around the world. as you know, my corner of kentucky was among the first to feel the pain of opioid addiction. in the 1990s and more recently surge in heroin. with your success combating production and trafficking in south and central america and then newer initiatives like the joint documentary with the dea called chasing dragons, i'm confident that your partnership in this epidemic will yield results but we have to keep your foot on the gas pedal hard. as we discussed last year the growing threat of homegrown terrorism. , isis and other extremist
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groups have spread that poisonous doctrine worldwide through the internet and social media. we've got to be diligent to stay ahead of the curve and i look forward to hearing your plans to stop the radicalization of american citizens. and more specifically how we can be sure that the internet, this new international mode of conversation, that also allows evil doers to organize their efforts, how can we tackle that part of the problem? i look forward to hearing from you. thanks for coming. >> thank you, mr. chairman. at this time my privilege to represent our ranking member, gentlelady from new york. miss miss lowey.
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>> [inaudible] the internet and social media revolutionized our economy and way of life. they have also become weapons of choice for terrorists with propaganda and recruit to radicalize followers. as we tragically witnessed in paris and san bernanadino, a new type. okay. of terror attack including growing threat of homegrown extremists and lone wolf terrorists. congress must provide the fbi with resources to keep up with these evolving threats. i look forward to hearing how increased funding to enhance the technical capabilities of the fbi investigative personnel, increase number of cyber investigations, improve cyber collection and analysis would
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help meet this need. i wholeheartedly support the administration's requested increase for the national crime background system or nics, black friday 2016 broke records for gun sales with 185,345 background checks processed in a 24 hour period, slightly more than two background checks every second. it's clear that the fbi will need additional investments to keep up with record breaking sales. last month the president rolled out executive actions to prevent mass shoots and loss of innocent american lives. many nra-backed republicans in congress seized that opportunity to make sure they will not support any measures to implement the president's plan, including, including increased the funding to keep up with the increase in background checks.
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i fear this is misguided, indyk fixed i hope not, what is to come during the appropriations process. despite threats facing our nation, the men and women of the fbi put their lives on the line every day so we may live safely and securely. they deserve to be commended as do you. we thank you for your service, director comey, and i look forward to hearing your testimony. thank you. >> director comey, i also thank you on behalf of the people of texas for your service and we recognize you for your opening statement. without objection your written statement will be entered into the record but we would ask if you could to keep your remarks to five minutes to permit additional time for questions. >> certainly, thank you, mr. chairman, chairman rogers, mr. honda, mrs. lowey, thanks for having me here again. pleasure to be here before you. thank you for the good words about the people of fbi. they're the magic of the organization i'm lucky enough to lead. i always tell them we don't have a lot of fancy stuff.
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we have great people. moments before i got into the car to come here, i welcomed 170 new employees joining us all over the country. they come together to make sure we're knitting common culture including ethics and integrity responsibilities. i hope you didn't sign up to get rich. this is not about the money. i don't think the fbi is something you do. i think it ising is you are. an orientation towards life and service. thank you for our folks. it make as big difference. i want to say a few words about stewardship. i'm very proud of the way the fbi has acted as good stewards of taxpayer money in the united states during my 2 1/2 years as director. in particular as i told you we try to be very conservative, but my first two years on this job, what we asked for and i promised you if i really needed more dough in areas i would come and tell you. i'm here to tell you about some of those ways which i think we need more resources. we're trying to go even farther. we have made it one of our
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strategic objectives in the fbi to reinforce that culture of stewardship. so we maintained an approach that is like this. when people drive a car that is february by vehicle, i want them not to think of it as somebody else's car. i want to think of them as taxpayer of the united states's car. they must care for it like they borrowed from somebody they care about deeply. we want the attitude toward our buildings, our pens, all of our resources. it is all borrowed from people that work hard to pay their taxes. we're trying to drive the attitude into the organization so stewardship becomes part of the fiber of this great fbi. just want to say a few words about the things that i am here to ask for, more support on in particular. we need a new headquarters. very, very badly. if our people are going to be safe, be effective and if we're going to be good stewards of taxpayer's money, %e have to get them all, modern, safe, efficient fbi headquarters. there is a big sum asked for in
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our budget to support that. i very much appreciate the support across the aisle on our need for that headquarters. cyber remains a top priority of the fbi for reasons this committee knows. as you know we're asking for $85 million in addition to seibert that is going mostly to equipment and training. we have to have equipment at least as good as the bad guys so we can move information, analyze information and respond to the threat as fast as it comes at us which is the speed of light. we also asked for $38 million to deal with the problem we call going dark which is far broader than the problem with locked devices or encrypt the communications. it is a whole host of challenges to our functions. we need to invest in technology in particular to execute lawful court orders in a good way. as miss lowey mentioned we're asking for additional support to check backgrounds of americans that want to purchase firearms. we have seen huge increase in
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number of transactions we have to process. that put as great strain on our process. we want to make sure bad people don't get guns. we have to get them help and in additional personnel and we asked for $35 million to plus up folks that answer phones and process transactions. last i want to mention, mr. chairman, you and mr. rogers mentioned the challenge we face in isil and terrorism. this is not your parents al qaeda. this is dispersed threat. it is an effort by these savages to motivate troubled americans to kill in their name and reach them wherever they are, which is unfortunately in all 50 states. if we're going to be effective against that threat, one of the tools we have to have and use well is surveillance. we have to follow some of these people to make sure they don't harm innocent people. we asked for additional eight $8 million to for additional people to follow people to make
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americans safe. i will just close by saying, thank you again for the support to this organization. we know we can count on resources, even in tough times that are absolutely necessary to keep the country safe and we're grateful for it. thank you, sir. >> thank you, director. i know i speak on behalf of all my colleagues in the with the admiration we have for the fbi and the good work you do, but as chairman rogers said, and i deeply appreciate your recognition that we have to all be good saw wards of these very precious and scarce, hard-earned tax dollars. i particularly like your approach that you have laid out that you have asked all your employees to think of the every asset, every resource, every thing that you work with that the fbi has borrowed from someone who they care deeply b that is a great way to think about it. we have in this subcommittee in past years and in the fiscal year '16 bill worked hard to
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protect the supply chain. it has been a real source of concern. my predecessor frank wolf quite correctly identified this early on. frank was one of the first out of the gate to recognize the threat posed to this country by cyber espionage, cyber theft, particularly from china. and the supply chain is one particular source of concern and vulnerability. so i wrote in to the '16 bill in consultation with good people in your office to have the give the fbi an enhanced role in reviewing the supply chain for telecommunications equipment, for computer equipment, acquired by agencies under the jurisdiction of the commerce, justice science subcommittee. could you describe, director, the threat that all agencies of the federal government face from
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foreign governments and other bad actors to their information technology systems? >> yes, thank you, mr. chairman. and thank you for your support of that effort. the fbi has taken your urging and marched out and executed on it after the language in last year's bill. we have promulgated already to every federal agency a primer on, here are the best practices to think about up is ply chain because -- supply chain. we're only as strong as our weakest link. you can spend all the time in the world making sure foreign states are not penetrating the top corporation in the chain but if they get in down below they will wreak as much havoc. we tried to train the rest of federal procurement world. we have the cyber threat center where i told the house intelligence committee this morning we brought together a lot of elements of the intelligence community and other areas of the u.s. government to
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think about the threat to the united states by corporations who are allowing themselves to be co-opted to act as agents of foreign powers and work of foreign powers trying to penetrate the supply chain on lower level to work their way up. it is enormous undertaking. i'm not here to report we licked it but with your support we made a good down payment on that effort. >> the approach we took, mr. chairman, not overwhelm these good men and women ask the fbi to come up with sort of a good housekeeping seal of approval from the fbi, best track practices as director just said. the best practices you just published, thank you very much for that. the agencies under the jurisdiction of cjs are come approximately to follow fbi best practices to protect security of their supply chain. we know threat, there are a lot of countries but china is the worst offender, building in backdoor to computer chips. australia, forbid, will not
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allow any government entity to buy routers or telecommunications equipment manufactured by huawei. they just flat won't buy them because of pervasive threat posed by chinese using that chinese built equipment to penetrate the government. how, what is the response been, director, from agencies, once you publish best practice? are they adopting, do they seem to be adopting best practices that you have published? are you working with agencies to insure they understand their supply chain threats? >> i'm told they are making the right positive noises about it. it is probably too early to say what progress people are making in pushing those best practices into their procurement but everybody seems to understand the threat which is one of the most important parts of the whole exercise to open eyes to what nation states could do to us so we really have to watch this space to see how well they do it but that is part of our job to see how they do it. >> so far so good? >> so far so good. >> you talked to me about this
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in classified setting but what can you tell us in open setting, you opened some eyes at some agencies and had positive result. is there anything else you can tell in a setting like this without being too specific? >> i don't want particular countries and companies been co-opted by those countries to know what i know. no doubt there concerted effort by hostile states not to use just traditional espionage but so-called legitimate ventures as instrument to gain access to our systems and our processes. it's a fairly sophisticated effort that goes on. as i said, you really requires eye-opening, i see the world fairly darkly given the nature of my life but it is important to make sure that many so of our colleagues and agencies that don't have enforcement responsibilities, they see enough of the darkness to know they should ask good questions and hard questions. that is what this education proses is has been about. >> i guess what i'm driving at, does this approach appear to be successful. >> it does.
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it is. >> thank you, sir, thank you very much. >> thank you, mr. chairman. the house fy-16 cjs report included language on private lax and uploads to the combined dna index system called codis. we're very concerned that the requirements make validation for the states very time-consuming. we want to assure codis has high level of integrity, it is important to get information in timely fashion. especially in the light of our need to bring sexual offenders and other violent criminals to justice as soon as possible. we ask you examine ways to expedite this process. how are you moving forward with the recommendations included in this report? >> thank you, mr. honda. that is very important topic. one you and i have spoken about the last two years. we really wrestled with this, whether there is a way to crier something less than 100%
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validation after private lab before we let them put anything in what is the gold standard database for this country on dna which is codis. honestly we come to the place where we feel we can't honestly allow less than 100%. if we do anything to damage the gold standard of the dna's database by letting subquality work be a part of it we'll be sorry some day. we focused on and with good faith we have not come to place where we feel we can weaken requirements for private lab. we are focusing on ways states in particular to catch offenders quickly while the validation process is going on. as i understand what etf been trying to do is equip states to allow private labs to make inquiry of the state's dna holding, to put data into the state's dna holding before we allow them to put it into the federal because most of the hits for any particular offender will be in a single state. we think that deals with part of
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the problem. and we haven't done it long enough to know whether people will be happy enough with that to stop beating on us but we've held the line not allowing state private laboratories direct access to codis. we tried to speed it up by equiping states to work with private laboratories in a better way. >> so explain to me then the relationship of states process and their inputting their data into codis and how are they reaching 100% validation standards that you are, that you are requiring? >> well mid thatting is the way it works, if i screw this up i'm sure experts will fix it and come back to you, but i think the way it works the states have to validate 100% of the work of private lab we can be part of codis. that is time-consuming process. we think it is necessary to maintain purity of the gold standard. what we have said we have no problem if you want to use private lab's result in
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conjunction with the state's depository of dna data. to use that portion of the data the state holds as i understand it. we think that deals with a large part of the problem because most offenders, right, the offense is going to be within a particular state and so hits will be generated from intrastate data is the way i understand it. >> well not to be argumentative but, you're saying the states can achieve 100% validation according to your goal and standards and you're requiring each state to have these private entities to achieve that at the sate level. then it goes on to, again, it goes on to the, goes into the fbi, in your system, the codis system? >> i think, i think that's right. that we've told the country that we will not allow a state lab to put their information directly
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into codis. we will require that someone stand up for them and say, we've checked all of this out, 100%. so it is good enough to go into the codis database. >> help me understand, who stands up for the state to validate 100%? >> i don't know the answer to that i think we rely on states to do it but i'm sure there is some audit function we check out how states are doing. we can get you answer. >> can local law enforcement and district attorneys office achieve that validation requirement that you require? >> can local, can say local labs do it? >> local labs in the d.a.'s office or, can law enforcement offices be trained to do that aside from private, private entities? >> i don't know the answer to that. i'll find out the answer and get back to you on it. >> your comment about things happen just in the states, we
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just did a, analysis in alameda county and we had a hit in florida. so i think the value of this kind of system is that bad actors can run around different states and some, many, many crimes are left un, unsolved until we input some data we have in other places. >> i agree. >> i think we need to keep moving forward. and i'm pushing this, but i appreciate, you know, our conversation, hope that we continue this, to a point where we can get rid of the 500,000 untested rape kits that are sitting on shelves. that is 500,000 victims, and perpetrators who are not getting justice. >> agree. >> thank you, mr. chairman. >> thank you, mr. honda. recognize chairman rogers. >> mr. director, isis -- using
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technology to [inaudible]. you're battling with apple over access to the iphone of syed farook in san bernardino shooter. you're hoping to gain access to that phone to find out if there may have been other people involved and so forth. ceo of apple says that your request would create dangerous legal precedent. would endanger the privacy of anyone with a iphone. what do you think? >> what we're doing in california with the u.s. attorney's office in the san bernanadino investigation is we have a search warrant for one of the mass -- terrorists phones
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and the phone is one that is locked and can't be open with his pass code. if we try to guess his pass code, after the 10th guess, the phone will essentially auto erase. so what the judge who is in the, search warrant came from has done issued a order to the manufacturer of the phone is two things. you must shut off auto erase feature on that particular phone. . .
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we will send you gases, electronically. if you open tell us that comes open. i don't quite understand some of the comments that have been made publicly about how this is going to affect our world but i think it illustrates the bigger challenge we face. on the huge fans of privacy. i love encryption. it's a great thing but our need for public safety and our need for privacy are crashing into each other and we've got to sort that out as a people. sometimes i hear companies that we would you get a place where no one could ever look at her device. i reacted quickly think that's great, i don't want anyone going to my phone. you stop and say wait a minute,
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law enforcement sometimes it's our lives, states are chilly, safer neighborhoods by getting search warrants from judges. sometimes her suitcases or four apartments, sometimes for those. if we're going to get to a world with our spaces and american life that are immune to judicial search wars that's a different world than the one in which will live and we have to talk about that. corporations shouldn't drive us there. the fbi should make this decision. the american people should decide how do want to be governed. san bernardino matters because it's a hugely important is but the bigger issue is tremendous and tremendously important. >> what would you be looking for in this particular case? >> we are simply looking for compliance with the court order that apple right a one off piece of software that shuts off the auto erase feature. >> what could you possibly learn from this, being able to access the phone? >> possibly come as i said i don't know whether there is evidence of the identity of
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another terrorist on the phone or nothing at all. we ought to be fired in the fbi if we didn't pursue that lead. we could not look at the victims in the face and say we decided not to execute a search warrant because it would be awkward, or people would feel uncomfortable about it in some way. we have a duty to try to do that. if a judge is no, the law doesn't permit that, we are big fans of the rule of law and that will be the end of it but we think we are to follow that lead. this is a life investigation and it's hard to imagine a circumstance where our work is more important than this. >> as you said before it leads us into a discussion of the larger picture of the use of the new technology that we enjoy today for evil purposes. what have you to say about that? >> this is the hardest problem i've seen in government. it implicates america's gift for innovation, implicates privacy,
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it implicates of the rule of law, implicates public safety. it can't the bumper sticker. the fbi has a limited role. first it's to investigate cases to try to save peoples lives and people from paying. the second is to make sure folks understand this world some people imagine where nobody can look at your stuff is a world that allow public safety costs. we may decide it's worth it but we shouldn't go there without people understand it. water melting us will never but they were folks look at us and said what you mean you can't? you have a search warrant. a child is missing or there's been a horrific crime. before we get to that date we just have to have to talk about it and understand how do we optimize these things we care about? privacy and safety, how do we do that? it's not easy. >> quickly, my time is almost out. in the last decade, heroin use
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in this country's increased by 63%. how much of that is attributable to the mexican cartel, and how are we letting this amount of air would come into the country? >> the country is facing, trinity universe but in any american, the country is facing away from highly pure heroin that is washing across now primarily the eastern half of the united states. but as big a wave of purely -- the waves are moving towards each other and are starting to passage of in the middle of the united states. almost all of it comes from mexico. methamphetamine and heroin, it's highly pure. it's cheap because the mexican cartels are growing the poppies in southern mexico. their supply lines are very short. they're pushing is highly pure heroin into the united states, especially kids are finding it
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so easy to move from opioid abuse to this highly pure heroin abuse, and dying in the process. this is something i've had my eyes open to and have formed a partnership with the daa to try to do something about but it is washing over us from mexico and there's lots of challenges to the interdiction effort, the director of national intelligence was talking about how in his view we need more resources for the coast guard because of their ability to integrate these multi-downloads have been diminished as the resources have diminished. i don't know the answer but i do know it's an emergency in the united states. >> now they are mixing very powerful synthetic with heroin, not knowing the potency of it and overdosing and dying. what can you say about that? >> fentanyl is 40, 50 times more powerful than heroin. so they are mixing that know, a lot of which comes from china which is something we are now
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focused on, with heroin. and even people who think you got used to the heroin are killed in a snap when it has that extra hit of fentanyl into. the reason you mention a film that chuck rosenberg and i did an intro to to try and help educators and families understand what's going on, there are thousands of people dying in this country from heroin. tens of thousands from opioid abuse and heroin. it's so big a problem it's almost hard to get our minds around but we simply must. >> more people died from overdose and opioid and car wrecks. thank you, mr. chairman. >> ms. lowey? >> thank you, mr. chairman. thank you again for articulate and so clearly the challenge we are facing between privacy and security. i won't continue on that path but many of us have very different views on that.
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on another issue related to cybersecurity, i remain very concerned with attacks by cybercriminals on corporations and payment systems resulted in the theft of consumers personal information. in the last few weeks a fast food restaurant wendy's announced an investigation of the potential credit card breach of which they don't know the size yet. other recent large financial data breaches affecting payment systems include target in 2013, 40 million payment cards, 70 million records of customers names, addresses, telephone numbers, e-mail addresses. adobe 2013, 152000 customer names, encrypted passwords, encrypted payment card information. home depot, 2014, 56 million customer e-mail addresses and payment cards. just some of the example of
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breaches that we know. thousands more unsure are not printed in the newspaper because the companies don't want to get this information to their stockholders. your budget includes an additional 85 million to address the problem but it seems to me that unless there are consequences, arrests and prosecutions, these will continue to be very attractive activities for criminals. i can remember being briefed 10 years ago by ray kelly, the new york police department, and it seems they were always behind. they would always hear these events after they occur. so how many of these large cyber breaches and with the responsible parties being arrested and prosecuted, and what can really do about this? what concerned me most about the briefings i got from police commissioner kelly is we were
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always behind, and very often the corporations don't want anyone to know. so thank you spill the honest entity or how many questions, not enough. we don't have good statistics on often it's happening for some of the recent you alluded to but the major problem we face is so many of these offenders are outside the united states. because the internet allows them to travel as a photon. they don't have to come in at jfk and get the luggage and come in some places and steal from us. they're able to do it through the internet. we have to as you said impose a cost so they don't think it's a freebie to steal from america. our goal is to have them feel somebody, breath on the back position at the keyboard whatever that are around the world. the only way we get them picture that if we lock people. we have made good progress you, not good enough come in a couple of ways. from the fbi's perspective we are embedding more cyber agents and analysts overseas to have been said with local police and
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local counterparts so as old-fashioned as that seems so we can get the evidence to make the case and then get up foreign counterparts to arrest these people. the second thing is what i do make it less profitable even for those who steal. what's happened since ray kelly's briefing is the crux, the world has evolved to such a sophisticated place they have marketplace for criminals where it is your credit card information you don't even have to know who to sell it to. go to the marketplace and higher a casual person or a coder. so we'll focus on trying to destroy those marketplaces because it's a weak spot in the criminal world. they have evolved into unsophisticated but that gives us a chance to attack them had a hub that will disrupt their activities. we've got to lock people up and send a message and attack them or their most mobile and that is in their marketplaces. that's how we are thinking about the strategy. >> i've mentioned several
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situations that have been pretty public. how good is a big indication between the private sector and your office or other law-enforcement officers, or are they still not quite sharing? >> it's gotten much, much better just in the years i've been director it's gotten better. because a board of directors, boards of directors are asking about. do we have a relationship with the fbi or for the payment card folks especially the secret service, and are they sharing with us and our we should get back? that has improved dramatically. still not good enough because our economy is so big and complex that it's in a much better place than was even two and a half years ago because people understand the business imperative, that it will save you money if you develop a relationship with us so we can tell you what the indicators are of the crooks so you can lock your door and we can quickly respond if you are attacked. >> i just wonder come and i'm going to close with this, mr. chairman, in my discussion with
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some corporate boards and individuals, most of them have hired huge numbers of people to deal with this at their own business site. i just wonder how much can education is taking place between you and your staff and the corporations before something happens? is the sharing of technology or are they all keeping their own systems to themselves because i think the companies would tell you this as well. it's gotten much, much better. we are doing things like, we build something like the malware investigator. the fbi for years has had a data breach -- database of all malicious code that people use to break into different systems. when we investigate we would always greet. what we've done is told our trusted private sector partners will give you an account at the let you hook up to that but if you encounter malicious code,
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type it in, dump it in your database and you'll get a result in minutes, sometimes seconds. that's in our interest because we get more people contribute examples it's in the company's interest because they get quick answers, future call the l.a. fbi. that's one example but we've got to get better. that's not what they would call machine speed. that's much better than it was three years ago. >> thank you. thank you, mr. chairman. >> very important question, and i can tell you from personal experience that i've had several companies in eastern area, one research center here even recently complimented you, director, and your team for, they showed up at their doorstep and said we think you have a problem. they sat down in a private setting and walked this research center through the attack that had taken place that researchers had no idea that, once again, the chinese had broken in and stolen all the stuff. you do great work in this area
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and something we need to continue to help you with. mr. palazzo. >> thank you, mr. chairman. director, it's great to see you again. last year -- ough [inaudible] >> you testified the active investigations in all 50 states. since then, to students in my home state of mississippi were arrested trying to join isis. can you provide us an update on what the fbi is doing to keep u.s. residents from t tony isisr other terrorist groups? >> a few congressmen. i remember well our conversation a year ago. the picture today is worse in some ways, better in some ways. worse in the sense that the number of investigations we have into people who are in some spectrum from consuming ice was poisoned acting on it has
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continued to slowly rise. we have about 1000 out in the united states. that's very concerning. the good news is we see fewer people attempting to travel to go to the so-called caliphate which is a nightmare on earth, that the so-called caliphate. we see that number dropping. i don't want to be over confident in saying what to make of it. so part of the reason is we have given people, not we, the federal courts have given people significant jail sentences for joining isil or attempted to go to isil. so people understand our huge cost associated with the dabbling with these savages. i'm hopeful that they will continue. it's been over the last six months the number has stayed down but the case for mississippi illustrate the challenge especially young people or on board who are looking for center in their life and a lot of people find that in healthy ways, will find in unhealthy ways through isil's
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propaganda but it remains a dominant feature of the fbi's work in the united states. >> in your testimony you mentioned that tariffs are utilizing social media and internet to disseminate propaganda and recruit american citizens to travel to i suspect he said those numbers seem to be trending down, but there's still try to recruit people to do harm here in america or attacks from within. what does the fbi do to protect, monarch of prevent terrorists from agree with our own country? >> everything we possibly can under the law. we are trying to make sure that we have appropriate source space. that is can we people in communities who will tell us when they see something odd going on. we try to make sure we have a robust undercover presence where appropriate to find out what's going on. we try and make sure we're tightly connect with state and local enforcement. i probably should've said this first. it's the deputy sheriffs and the police officers who know their neighborhoods and other kids in
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the neighborhood who will have a sense of who's going sideways. actually afford. we are building relationships with american companies all of them think about is the same way. they do not want their products used by terrorists. the last one is we are making sure we are tight with our foreign partners who may see things overseas that are leads into the united states so we can follow-up on the i've probably forgotten something but those five are probably at the core of it. >> thank you, director. i yield back. >> thank each other. thank you, mr. director, for being with us. i'm honored to represent 11 tribes in the district i represent. i take our nation's responsibility to promote tribal sovereignty and to protect treaty and trust obligations. i take that seriously. right now 25% of violent crimes prosecuted by the is the attorneys offices are tied to indian country.
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i'd like to hear more about how the fbi promotes and supports self-sufficiency for travel law enforcement. i would love to get a sense of how much money the fbi is making available through this budget request for supporting tribal law enforcement. and also get a sense of internally how do you operations just within your own capacity support the investigation of violent criminal acts in indian country? >> thank you for your interest in this issue. i worry a lot that at times the reservations seem like crime scenes without a constituency, that no one speaks for the violence and especially the harm to children, so many of our reservation lands and among the native american people. so thank you for this. we deal with that operation for the safe trails task forces, to which we work out of the seattle office. that's a huge feature of her
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work especially west of the mississippi. it's one i've taken a personal interest in. i have visited the reservations when i was deputy attorney general. i have two daughters who want a church mission would to an indian reservation two years ago and came back and said you're the fbi director, you must do something. so they're probably the most important constituency in my life and so i've had report to -- chairman culberson's important but i have to report to my daughter. among the things identified to incentivize our talent to do that work. the details are not important. we've created incentives for our best and brightest to go special agents and analysts to work in indian country to do the work which is incredibly difficult work. we continue to do a lot of training with tribal law enforcement and will get you, i don't have off the top of my head the particular numbers. to have to be the front line of defense. the fbi is in uzbekistan as enormous as this problem.
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so we were lied on the bia and tribal law enforcement but it is not come afte to you that i thie fbi is solving this challenge honestly. it is so big and so horrific and so invisible to so much of her country that there's not an easy answer. >> i would like to follow up with you and your team on that. i want to switch gears entirely. earlier this month a hospital in los angeles fell victim to a ransom where scanned and edited thing $17,000 to hackers choose to regain access to hospitals computers. we've heard about these sorts of attacks being perpetrated against cities and law enforcement agencies and schools and companies and just regular citizens where people are often forced to pay their own money just to get access to their own technology. i'd like to get a sense from you what sort of safeguards against
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these types of cyber crimes should we be looking at? what can we do? i know as the fbi investigates of these sorts of things are you learn any lessons from that? is there any direction to us as policymakers in terms of what might be done in this space that may not currently be providing you the resources you need? >> this is a phenomenon that is sweeping across people and institutions, nonprofit and profit institutions. from the computer hygiene perspective the lesson we've learned here is everybody within the sound of my voice should have a good backup. whether it's your laptop or whether you run a hospital or a business, you must ensure that you adequate backup. because the internet is a very hard place to police successfully. at some point someone may try and lock up your device and and and and money for it. yoyou are aiming to the edge ofa good backup. as a company, a hospital, as an individual. that's my piece of advice to
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folks. from our perspective, we have to oppose costs on those people who are mostly outside the united states reaching in and locking up people's assistant and asking that it going or money be wired to the. we need to track those people dead and lock them up to send a message this is not some game or free be. that's hardly something what i do every single day. those are my two pieces of reaction. >> thank you, mr. chairman. i yield back. >> thank you very much. mr. carter. >> director, welcome. you know the high regard i hold your agency and you personally at all these agents. i think you're an example of excellence and we have to be and are very proud of. i will start off with something that is local to me. after much frustration with the va on the lengthy time waits and
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the conspiracies that seem to have existed to shuffle papers and harm veterans, i aske ask fr your assistance and all became involved. and i am very aware, as a judge with the fbi, you don't comment on investigations. not asking they did not. because we get about 250-300 calls a week and we know you are working. these are veterans that are concerned. what can we tell the veterans about progress about whether it's criminal activity that is involved, the stories we've heard about people making money over dealing veterans getting treatment. >> the most you can tell them is we are working it, working it hard. i checked out yesterday. we are working it. as you also said we don't talk
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about our work for good reasons but i can assure the folks who call you we are audit and we are working very hard. >> most of them trust you and, therefore, the would be a good message to send. secondly, something is very important to me, yesterday, this week i introduced a bill to expand grants to include the active shooter training. i am well aware the fbi is held at all the active shooting training. and i think it would be comic if access to local enforcement for something many can't afford now. by using copts grants to get involved with active shooter. would you comment on what your thoughts are on the active shooter training that the fbi gives and receives and then the expansion or the necessity to expand to other law enforcement, understand how the active shooter program works speak with that alert training which adjuvanted comes out the great
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state of texas out of university, texas state i think, saves lives in the united states. and it is so important we've trained tens of thousands of law enforcement folks using it so they can then trained others so that all million people and law enforcement in detroit should have the training and didn't ought to go beyond that frankly. i'm a huge fan of it. anyway they can be supported and spread more its international interest, in my view,. >> you could apply for cops grants or a good concept right now, it wouldn't be covered but we think we will get a huge amount of support. i think we both sides of the aisle will get a huge amount of support because i couldn't believe after the shooting at fort hood from realizing officers who responded and were not successful in bringing down the shooter were both active shooter trained, one of them by the fbi. so it's quite, it odyssey works.
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>> i hear about all over the country. i travel a lot and meet with enforcement and the chocolate costly. it inspired us to produce the video. i don't know whether you've seenit, called of the coming storm which is about an active shooter incident at a community college that is so good and so important to law enforcement we the tens of thousands of copies and just giving it away around the country. >> that's great and thank you for that. by the way, as we start this process we contacted her office. they were very cooperative, very encourage as very much and i'm happy to do that. thank you, mr. chairman. i will get the next round. >> thank you, judge. mr. jolly. >> thank you, mr. chairman. thank you for being you. i appreciate the full committee chairman bring up the current matter with apple. i have strong opinions about that and there's a question you but i want to start i thinking you are being diligent in pursuing the court order and staying on top of this.
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my view of the world and realize that is one number of this committee doesn't reflect the entire committee but this is a court order applying to one phone. and apple is refusing to comply with that order and, frankly, if their failure to comply means that there is additional information out there that has already contributed to other incidents or will in future contribute to other incidents of terrorism or national security, i think apple leadership risks having blood on their hands and i think tim cook is going to have a very hard time explaining what he stood in the way of justice on this issue. so i thank you for what you're doing. this is not my iphone you're trying to look at. this is the iphone of syed farook why believe is an individual who gave up every single one of his civil liberties the day he killed 14 americans and injured 20. so i thank you for what you're doing on the. i know our chairman asked what might be on th on the phone anda little bit of suppositions about the content of communications.
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from a factual standpoint though, what are the files on a typical phone and what profile might you be able to build up his activity or communications? as a layperson i would presume phone calls, messages, what profile do you not have of this murderer that you might otherwise have? >> the particular challenge we face in this case is the phone was last backed up over three weeks before the attack. and so very often and again i don't in any of his to take on a company. i find the company has been helpful in a lot of ways. we just got to put what they said we will not this issue for the. and for reasons i don't doubt that hold honestly your if this is backed up to the i cloud of apple cooperate with court orders and we get back to the photos were backed up all kinds of records about people we can get lawful with the judges authorization. anything that might have been
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backed up to the cloud may still be on the phones. that would be photos or text or notes or gps information from where this on travel to one of our real concern is 19 minutes we can't figure out where they were picked after the attack but we looked at every gas station can become every intersection camera. we have the whole route but we're missing 19 minutes before they were finally killed by law enforcement. the attitude that maybe on the device spirit because they phone you have some type of gps or tower signals you would know that approximately where they were? >> all kind of locator service is turned on in connection with the phone. all of us, these films are wonderful. our entire life in a way are on the phone. that is why people ask good questions about privacy. it's also what i want people to take a step back and say if we cut to a world where those places were waterproof, what does the world look like where it is worth approved in a certain place in american life? is not the bureau going opening
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people's devices. we want to open your device we go to a judge, make a showing of probable -- probable cause your. >> i thank you for that. obviously, you know the perspective from which i'm coming. i'm sick and tired in the state and across the country people not siding with law enforcement. in this case that it was apples and that includes template to give folks a. i know that side with law enforcement. i pressure what you're doing. we will leave that to the courts to decide. i don't doubt their intentions and i agree. i don't doubt apple's intention to i just think they are wrong on this one, that they are erring on the side of privacy cloaking would is a national security narrative. i appreciate you. thank you very much. >> thank you, mr. jolly.
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director, i recently visited the national cyber investigative task force to see the very serious and persistent threats to our information security systems and infrastructure. last year the country learned of the huge loss of personal data from the office of personnel management i can still buy the chinese who continue to be the worst actors out there. during the superbowl weekend hackers posted online personal information for over 20,000 fbi and 9000 department of homeland security employees as a source of great concern to all of us. the department of justice said it was looking into the unauthorized access operate by one of its components. there have been reports that an arrest has been made. director comey you're asking for 626 million for your cybersecurity program which is an $85 million increase. could you talk about how the fbi is dealing with this threat and the realities of intrusions like this and how will this requested
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increase help you address that threat both for the fbi, the department in the country in general? >> thank you, mr. chairman. we are dealing with this threat in a number of different ways which i can summarize briefly as we are trying to shrink the world. what i mean by that is we are trying to impose costs on the bad guys so they know no matter whether or we can reach them and put handcuffs on them. we are also trie trying to shrie world within the government. i'm glad you visited the nci jdf because that's the best example of what we are doing. probably 10 years ago the cyber response is a bit like for your old soccer. everybody chased the ball, actually somewhat a lot of for your soccer. they chase the ball into the club. went into jdf represents is about 20 to agencies with responsible is that cyber sitting together which is a big deal international covenant and sharing information about what do you see, what do you see,
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that is going to do what about it. we have spread on the field because to stay with the soccer metaphor every site who has the clearest shot, who's in the best position. that is the answer. because the problem is so so enormous that awakened to a vote and if we all chase it will adore a big piece of the. that's the first thing. what the budget increases for is we have to make sure we equip our people with the right stuff to be able to respond to this. a key part of our ask this was to build up a better high speed network to move the enormous clumps of data will help us see and understand a cyberthreat. the last piece of e-85 million dollars is for training. vital for us to take our folks and state and local law enforcement to be able to respond to this thread because it's getting more sophisticated. we are trying to shrink the world, equip our folks better, make sure our folks are trained well and, obviously, we need to attract great people to do this work for us and keep them in the
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heart is doing the work at the fbi. that's how i would describe our strategy. >> thank you, sir. mr. honda. >> director comey, i have these concerns about the privacy implications also of the fbi's ongoing attempts to force apple, which is based in my district, to create a hack to allow the guy to gain access to good information on the phone of one of the san bernardino shooters. i realize you face a tough challenge investigating the this attack on our nation and our communities. however, what the fbi request will echo be on this case it will create a weakness that can be exploited by those seeking to gain access to the new code the fbi seeks. these possibilities must be weighed against information the fbi will be able to recover from the phone of the san bernardino shooters. you have said that this is about one phone yet there've been
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multiple news stories highlighting of the phones the government seeks to access. can you promise of this is the only time you ask apple from any company to create software to gain access to a phone? apple is an international company. if apple were to comply with the u.s. government's request to build code to a specific need, do you worry about china and russia requesting the same? >> thank you, mr. honda but i'm going to try to make sure i had all parts of your question. first let me start with what i understand the court order to be directing. are not an expert but i've talked to a lot of expert so i will give this my best shot. i don't think it's accurate to say that the manufacturer is being asked to grade some code that could get loose on the land and do harm into different respects. first, what the court has directed them to do is write a piece of code that would only work in the terrorists phone.
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would work on anybody else's on because it's written to the signature of the phone for the second is they will have custody of the entire time. the phone would be at the manufacture. the code will be at the manufacturer. i think of actual security. in fact, in 2014 and before apple would unlock the routine in response to search warrants and do it at their headquarters. i never do anything but anything getting loose and hurting us. i greet that with skepticism spent excusing. let me ask the question, are you saying that apple's technology for icivics the access code is for only one individual phone and not that won't affect other i6 phones? >> i cannot go to try to explain as i understand. what makes this case unusual and wrote about it as the release we seek is obsolete and is why i said that.
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this is a five c. phone running ios nine. that confluence of operating system and hardware is increasingly outdated. a five seat still has the ability for apple to write a unique code for the wonderful double shot off the auto delete function and shut off the delay function. i don't believe that's possible the way to build a six and built after the five seat. they did the hard work of fully. i don't think that even if the judge says this is appropriate getting from apple that the technique will be useful in later generation phones running ios nine and thereafter. that's what i'm told that expert but as us of the great thing about the american court system is they can sort this out. >> let me ask, i'm not a lawyer but let me ask the question. if that was to be done for one phone at this one instance that it creates a precedent, will that require other opportunities
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for law enforcement to access other technologie technologies r peoples of? >> yes, i'm a lawyer but it definitely might because here's what would happen speed my follow-up question -- >> can i explain why i say that? because the judge will issue a decision in california interpreting the statute that wouldn't be binding on other judges but there will be other phones because as i've been saying for two years, this is a huge issue for state and local law enforcement. there will be other phones and other judges will do to see if that is a similar circumstance. there's no doubt about that. >> my follow-up response, but it does create precedent, what's the impact on constitutional principles of? >> that's a good question because the precedent would be created under the framework of our constitution. a search warrant is an exercise of authorities under the fourth
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amendment. the all writs act which congress passed would've had the fourth amendment in '17 89 is an exercise of the courts of jurisdiction. the great thing about this is, this isn't us going up and open people's hope it gets us going to a court asking for permission under fourth amendment to do something. it would be a precedent in this sense the court will look to it to see what it was useful but the entire framework is under all rule of law. >> mr. chairman, not to be argumentative but this is technology, but it's still a constitutional question seems to me in terms of you are arguing security versus privacy clashing. in 1941, 1941 december, we had a pearl harbor and there's a group of u.s. citizens in this country that were incarcerated based
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upon security and privacy and national security. these folks were moved in total to other places out of their homes without due process. when we looked at it 40, 50 years later with some hindsight, we realized that we reacted not judiciously, but we used the courts, the supreme court's also, to justify some the actions of the government. i'm just saying as one person who has seen this kind of thing happen, is very cautious about how we move forward. i've mentioned in times of tranquility our constitution is very rarely challenged. and pass terrorism and trauma and tragedies, it is when we need to be vigilant, thoughtful
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about it. and just think it through because we do not want to make a mistake as a nation that believes in the rule of law. >> i agree completely. that's what i think it's so important that this be a national conversation. because the stakes are too i. it affects how we're going to live, how we're going to govern ourselves, for our children's lives and grandchildren's lives. i don't think it ought to be decided by one court case or another court case. or the fbi or some company. the american people ought to decide how do we want to be. >> thank you, mr. chairman. and just to say, just to say that i agree that we should have a national conversation because in the past these kinds of things have always been rushed into, and thoughtful people need to get together with her own opinions and hash it out. thank you, mr. chairman.
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>> thank you. chairman rogers. >> your request includes 783.5 million for fbi headquarters construction. actually six and 46 million is for the building and the other for other things. -- 646 million. that's a huge request. and at the same time you're proposing significant cuts in fbi operations. which i find it a little troubling. tell me how important it is for a new building. >> very, very important. i would have felt differently the fbi in the current crumbling infrastructure and fail the taxpayer because we are in a dozen or more facilities around washington. incredible inefficient we are
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pulling all kinds of dough on lisa's we should be spending because we've outgrown the headquarters that was built 40 years ago. it is literally falling down. the reason we have netting around the topless is not to protect us from the civilians, it's to protect us from falling on the silliness. the buildings flaking off. so i think it's critical that the bureau be in a place that is commensurate with the mission of the fbi to protect the american people and i know it's expensive at the vision is build a building that i will be long gone from the earth and it is still functioning and efficient and safe for our folks. i'm a fairly stingy person when it comes to money. this is money that i believe is well spent. to be good stewards we are squeezing ourselves in other areas as you said to make sure we are not only talking it but we are walking the talk spirit just as your earlier very eloquently described your instructions to employees, that car is not yours.
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treat it like it's the american public. we do that with dollars. we are stingy with what we passed out, too. we are trying to treat these dollars like you are our own ideas. actually the request told this for 1.4 billion. about half of which is for gsa. half-brother for fbi. the request includes what i think is an unworkable gimmick to authorize doj working capital funds to be used for construction. how do you propose that to work? >> mr. chairman, i don't know enough about that to give you an intelligent answer. i understand the money we've asked for i understand tsa intends to have whoever wins the bid take our existing building
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in partial payment but i don't understand enough about the working capital but i will get you a sport into i can't answer it right now. >> do you know what the intended use for the present building would be? >> gsa's ideas sell it to a developer. the developer who built our building will get in partial payment, the current build of pennsylvania avenue can develop it how ever the local law allows them to develop it, i'll tell or office building or something like that but it will be, we'll be using the object as partial payment for the new building. >> house -- >> that's why understanding the this is a gsa deal. >> has there been a sidekick for the new building? >> no. it is narrowed to three possibles, this year the competing developers and builders will offer their proposals and will be a selection that after to pick which of the sites is the
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smartest one your two of them are in maryland, one by the greenbelt metro. the third site is in springfield just south of where 95 leaves the beltway heading south. >> mr. director, thank you for your service. >> thank you, mr. chairman. >> perhaps rather than, perhaps hang onto and leasing it and long-term lease but i know that some of the most successful real estate developers downtown houston that on the probably way back i in the 1840s and 50s just hung onto it still make a great mcdonald's. [laughter] >> they would lease it out like shell headquarters but most of those big building in downtown houston are on 99 year lease it. hope to explore that as well. why sell that found the piece of real estate? why not hang onto it and lease it out virtually in perpetuity and be like a little oil wealth for you. ms. lowey. >> thank you, mr. chairman.
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i did want to say again how much i appreciate and how fortunate we all are to have a person of your caliber in this position. i know you served in an outstanding role in new york and we are glad that the president was wise enough to bring you here to washington, d.c. thank you. and i just want to say as a result of my colleagues comments on both sides of the aisle, i also appreciate your articulation of the challenge you are facing between privacy and security. i may have a different perspective than my colleague, mr. honda, but i certainly appreciate the sincerity of the thoughtfulness with which you presented your views. so i think you. i wanted to continue a discussion briefly with in my time of an issue i brought up in my opening statement, and that his background checks.
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as we know under the law background checks us be done within three days of the transaction is allowed to proceed. regardless of whether a person is lawfully permitted to purchase a firearm. to meet the growing demand your budget requests 35 million in funding for improvements to the national criminal background check system to support 175 additional staff. seems to me it does violate important that background checks are done thoroughly as result of incomplete information can be deadly. for instance, following the tragic south carolina mass shooting it was discovered that the shooter had passed a background check despite information that could have disqualified him. i was shocked to hear that. to those who lost their lives,
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they must feel the pain to think that this could have been avoided. and i was pleased that last summer you ordered a review of the incident. can you briefly share what the review discovered? is it appropriate for you to share with us of? >> yes, advocate for the. the south carolina shooting that this murder dylann roof got the gun is an extraordinarily painful thing for all of us at the fbi. he didn't pass the background check. we just had not resolved a question about his criminal history by the end of the third day. and so the seller underflow was able to transfer it to him. he killed the folks there after. so the review i ordered is to establish th the facts as i understood them at the time were what we understood. i didn't learn any new tax to we learned that we needed to do better, long story but the reason he wasn't picked up is,
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our information on some of the geographical oddities of south carolina cost our examiner to miss something, and that makes it clear in a. so we fixed that and we concluded we need more folks answering the phones because the number of gun purchases is going out. we need to update our technology which was already underway and we need to get the american criminal justice system to improve its record keeping. one of the big flaws in all countries criminal justice system is dispositions. people are not good enough at entering the final conviction or result in a criminal case at the federal level and at the local level. if that's not in there, our examiner's will not see that the person is a convicted felon and prohibited the people will get guns. those with the conclusions from the study. we are asking for your support to get more people into. the technology, update is underway with doctor state and local partners and talking ourselves to improve our record keeping so we have better results.
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>> thank you for that. however as i understand it the majority of firearm purchases from law-abiding citizens can take minutes, but for those whose incomplete information or red flags, the requests for information can go on for days. it's not necessarily that you need more people answering the phones would do it have to do. so the question is in these cases, how long can it take for final determination even after i got has been purchased? and i'm concerned that three days may not always be enough time to evaluate a background check with questionable information. and i think that is an issue that we have to discuss no matter where we stand with the nra, not the nra, when you can buy a gun or not. we need a careful background check or i think it's not just that you need more people. you need more time, is that
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correct? >> under the law we have three days and -- >> that's exactly what i'm questioning. >> about 9000 people a year, we find out after the third day that they were prohibited. about 58% of those we find out between day for and taken. most of the prohibited people who are outside the three days we find out before the 10th day. that's 9000 people of come as we talked about, millions and millions of gun transactions but we still have to prove. have to prove. the law is developing the fbi doesn't make the laws. if it's three days we've had to make sure we are as good as we possibly can to end a three-day window. that's why we need better technology. that's why we need better record. >> i would just like to ask you if, in fact, that time was extended, i'm not saying they should be five days, 10 days, that's the professional judgment, but with fewer prohibited individuals be able
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to purchase firearms at this time were extended? >> the math would tell me yes, that yes, because the numbers i gave you. but as i said the law is the loss of the bureau is working hard to make sure it that we are excellent within the time we have. >> i understand. i don't want to put you on the spot which of many people here who make the laws. i just want to conclude, mr. chairman, i think it should be a serious consideration. if, in fact, we saw what happened in charleston and we see many of the cases, if three days is not seem sufficient, none of us would want people to go up around purchasing guns if you look at the facts and they shouldn't be able to do so. i would hope we can consider extending the days, working on a recommendation that make sense that would give you some guidance. i understand you are bangalore
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and i hope we can do with the law spirit to be closed of smart people to work with me so i got the number right. about 9000 people. so i had that about right spent take you very much. thank you, mr. chairman. >> it's important it's not about standing with the nra. it's about standing with the second amendment to keep and bear arms which is fundamental to who we are as americans. spent are we going to have that debate? [laughter] >> we are short on time. we are short on time. judge carter. >> mr. palazzo, forgive me. [inaudible] >> i will make my question quick. director, before coming i served on homeland security and the house armed services committee. so i take it very sizzling,
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making sure americans are protected abroad to make issuing a strong national defense and also protecting the americans are in our homeland. so that's why your remarks about those who are trying to recruit americans and doing the radicalization here to do harm here in our country. we talked a lot not just during presidential political years how are we going to fix her southern border. i'm concerned from more so than people coming over here to find a job can send money back home to them as i am foreign nationals who may want to do us harm, human trafficking, drug trafficking. we know how devastating costs dn be to a community, the families, just the external threats coming in. i know you spent time. he would gather and investigated the possibility of an isis can't in el paso. i remember your remarks in that regard. from your job being the fbi
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director, they have any recommendations to us, congress, on how we can gain some form of operational control or so that will but no, things like 43%? to make sure we're protecting americans here at home. >> i don't have any great suggestions for you. the peace that bureau focuses on a special ever counterterrorism mission is we are working very hard to make sure we have trip wires in place so that any terrorists are trying to use the border we get an indication of it. haven't seen it so far but it's something we are laser focused on because of the vulnerability there. so that bureau's business which all of our border officers are doing lots of things but especially focused on to you have especially focused on du have the sources of relationships in place to know if somebody gets the wind out of terrorists is tied to come in that way. so i think we are doing that in a good way but i don't want to be overconfident because it is a
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vulnerability and so that's why we've spent so much time worrying about it. >> do you have a number you can share people across the border that have links to terrorism and other countries? >> i don't. it's very small. we haven't seen it yet. those people who are smuggling humans or smuggling drugs and tried to smuggle terrorists in an odd way we count on the fact that they knew what would happen if the american people found out that a drug cartel was smuggling terrorists into the united states. so that actually acts as a deterrent oddly enough on the cartel from getting into business but look, i don't sleep well at night counting on the cartels to act in a rational way. i don't have a number. it's very, very small. in fact, i do know in my two nephews would benefit anybody coming in who we've confirmed comes in with association with a terrorist organization. >> thank you. >> thank you, mr. palazzo. >> i want to ask something i
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know that treachery has worked a lot on, that is the increasing level of reported violence against transgender people -- ranking member honda. the fbi's latest statistics suggest a very significant increase and there were more transgender homicide victims in 2015 than in any other recorded year, at least 21 transgender women, nearly all of them women of color lost their lives to violence. what is the fbi doing to address this increase in violence against transgender americans? do you believe the of adequate resources to combat what is a very disturbing trend speak was no doubt it is a disturbing trend. homicide is up a nationwide but it's dramatically up among the vulnerable community. we are dressing to giveaways. through our civil rights program that our criminal division runs that we focu focus on the expred we ask our 56 field offices to make sure that relationships
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with state and locals and service providers who might know of people who are victims are likely to be victims so that we can bring that information and respond to the. with respect to the question of resources, i don't know that we'll ever have enough resources frankly but my sense is in our civil rights program we have resources to address what's in front of us. >> thank you. i know time is short so i will yield back. >> judge carter. >> director, my constituents in texas have asked reassurance that no individual or officeholder is above the law. ..
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but i can tell you this: to i'm personally following this investigation and get briefed on it regularly, because i want to make sure that it is done in the way the fbi does its work professionally, with integrity, promptly. we want all investigations moved promptly without any interference whatsoever, and i can assure you it is all of those things. we have the resources technical and i don't usually follow the lot of investigations but i'm telling this to make sure it's done in a way the american people would want it done and i
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promise you that's the way it's done. >> i would expect nothing less and this is important and come close that it be done very professionally and that we let the american people know none of us are above the law. >> i dedicated my whole life to that proposition, and i'm not about to change that. >> we have great sites in your integrity and professionalism. >> thank you mr. chairman. i really do appreciate your job. [laughter] having said that, i understand it's a threat to economic security and our ability to retain jobs at home but i am concerned espionage has created a climate in which both
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investigators and prosecutors here are jumping the gun to pursue indictments against americans who happened to be language minorities. it raises a prospect of civil liberties violations. for example, the federal employee at noah were arrested on charges only later to have all of the charges dropped after some weeks and months after they lost their jobs and had been in their stand at there stand their reputation tarnished. my colleagues and i have written letters to the department of justice asking questions about this issue of the requests were not adequately addressed and i just wanted to know what is it that you're doing to ensure the fact his race, ethnicity or
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national origin and including the idea that folks are speaking the language at work and causing some sense of suspicion. and i think that happens too often that we have to raise that question. i would like some sort of response on that. >> the challenge i face is i can't explain what happened in the individual cases because i'm i'm a strict id on what i can talk about but your question is at the right level. the way that we in sure and oversee them and our interaction with the court. >> let me cut to the chase. i think that we need to have a discussion on the process by which you are pursuing that these kind of cases and the thought process you go through. i don't think that's classified.
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so i look forward to having some kind of meeting with your staff to hash this out if you want in a closed session, but we need to know and there has to be some sort of an apology to these folks that have been put through this and we try to seek some sort of justice from these folks that have been unfairly targeted and this isn't unlike some other cases in the past if we are going to have americans of different backgrounds participate in the have to have a resolution of this. >> i can't talk about individual cases implicit in the request for an apology is an assumption about cases i can't comment on unfortunately. i can't comment beyond that but we would be happy to talk about
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how we go through the process of thinking about our investigations. >> director comey, we will submit the remainder of the questions to you in writing but i want to thank you for your service to the country and we do have complete faith in your integrity and professionalism and your absolute objectivity and all that you do. thank you for keeping us safe. let us all sleep soundly at night. thank you very much. the hearing is adjourned.
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[inaudible conversations]
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it's a whole different campaign. we basically moved beyond the early primary caucus states and now we are on super tuesday. 12 states, voters in each state will have a defining impact on who the democrats and republicans nominate. it's a different phase because we move from the one-on-one we saw even in south carolina and now we are campaigning in 12 states where the candidates are going from airport to airport to appeal to as many voters as possible to make their last-minute pitches. advertising is key but it's moved to a different level in the campaign by the candidates hope the voters know who they are and in most cases the name is out there so they have to convince the voters including the undecided that that is the person they should vote for. since the since it began in the late 1970s one of the hallmarks has been the ability to call income ask questions,
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provide their opinions. a lot of polls out there but there's nothing different than talking to voters especially in the states the primaries were the caucuses were held. why are you supporting the candidate, how solid is your support for that candidate? you get a sense that you don't get anywhere else and the other networks have their condoms and lists and we will have the ability to the leading reporters on super tuesday but really the best pundits or the viewers are tuning in on c-span radio or watching on c-span television. republican presidential candidate donald trump held a campaign rally with voters in madison alabama yesterday. at the start republican senator jeff sessions initially endorsed the presidential candidacy of alabama is one of 12 states that hold primary elections on super tuesday tomorrow. ♪
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thank you. i have to tell you this is incredible. i could listen to that music all day long. all day long. i want to thank you. what over look over there. look at this. by the way there are 3,000 people that have to get him. should we start without them? that's amazing. this is the biggest crowd of the political season by far. we have 30,000 people. [cheering] amazing. 30,000 people. i want to thank everybody. we have a lot of folks in

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